Unheard Voices, Part 2: Women in Astronomy

A Resource Guide by Andrew Fraknoi (Foothill College)
[Aug. 2016]

A PDF version of this document is also available for download (687KB).

© copyright 2016 by Andrew Fraknoi. The right to use or reproduce this guide for any nonprofit educational purposes is hereby granted. For permission to use in other ways, or to suggest additional materials, please contact the author at e-mail: fraknoi {at} fhda {dot} edu

There is growing documentation of the challenges women have faced and are facing in having an equal role in astronomy. At the same time, women are attaining important positions throughout the astronomical community, including the presidency of the International Astronomical Union and the American Astronomical Society. This means that excellent role models are now available to show girls that they can be an integral part of the human exploration of the universe. Many instructors of astronomy would like to present such role models during their class discussions, but don’t have the material to do so at hand or in their textbooks.

Therefore, the Higher Education Working Group within NASA’s Science Mission Directorate has sponsored this guide to English-language materials. It is not meant to be a comprehensive introduction to this complex topic, but merely a resource for educators and their students on where to begin looking at the history, the biographical information, and the current issues. Suggestions for additional materials that are both accessible and readable are most welcome.

Heidi Hammel

Table of Contents:

1. The History of Women in Astronomy in General

A. Books

Alic, Margaret Hypatia’s Heritage: A History of Women in Science. 1986, Beacon Press. Chapters on Mary Somerville and Caroline Herschel.

Armstrong, Mabel Women Astronomers: Reaching for the Stars. 2008, Stone Pine Press. Covers the lives and careers of 21 women astronomers, past and present; written for teenagers and up.

Byers, Nina & Williams, Gary, eds. Out of the Shadows: Contributions of 20th Century Women to Physics. 2006, Cambridge U. Press. Includes chapters on Payne, Burbidge, and Bell Burnell.

Ghez, Andrea & Cohen, Judith You Can Be a Woman Astronomer. 2006, Cascade Press. A picture book for children from grades 3 - 5.

Jones, Bessie & Boyd, Lyle The Harvard College Observatory (1839-1919). 1971, Harvard U. Press. Has chapters on the work of a number of key women astronomers.

Lankford, John “Science and Gender: Women in the American Astronomical Community” in his American Astronomy. 1997, U. of Chicago Press. 72-page sociological overview, with statistics.

Mack, P. “Straying from Their Orbits: Women in Astronomy in America” in G. Kass-Simon & P. Farnes, eds. Women of Science. 1990, Indiana U. Press.

McKenna-Lawlor, Susan Whatever Shines Should Be Observed. 2003, Springer. The story of five 19th century women who made contributions to astronomy and science; too bad the price from the publisher is inappropriately high for a popular book.

B. Print Articles

Annie Jump Cannon

Dvorak, J. “The Women Who Created Modern Astronomy” in Sky & Telescope, Aug. 2013, p. 28. Focuses on the work of Annie Cannon, Antonia Maury, and Wilhelmina Fleming in classifying and understanding stars.

Greenstein, G. “The Ladies of Observatory Hill” in American Scholar, Feb. 1993, p. 437. On pioneering women astronomers at Harvard.

James, C. “Edward and Mina” in Astronomy, July 2002, p. 46. Despite the title, this treats several women who worked at the Harvard Observatory.

Kidwell, P. “Three Women of American Astronomy” in American Scientist, May/June 1990, p. 244. On Cannon, Mitchell, and Payne-Gaposchkin.

Lankford, J. & Slavings, R. “Gender and Science: Women in Ameri­can Astronomy 1859-1940” in Physics Today, Mar. 1990, vol. 43, p. 58.

Mack, P. “Strategies and Compromises: Women in Astronomy at Harvard College Observatory” in Journal for the History of Astro­nomy, vol. 21, p. 65 (1990).

Rizzo, P. “Early Daughters of Urania” in Sky & Telescope, Nov. 1954, p. 7.

Rubin, V. “Women’s Work: Women in Modern Astronomy” in Science 86, Jul/Aug. 1986, p. 58.

Spradley, J. “Women and the Stars” in The Physics Teacher, Sep. 1990, p. 372.

Warner, D. “Women Astronomers” in Natural History, May 1979, p. 12.

C. Web Resources

Bibliography by Ruth Freitag: http://www.loc.gov/rr/scitech/womenastro/womenastro-intro.html A far more comprehensive and scholarly bibliography, organized by last name, of written articles on women in astronomy. Ruth Freitag’s work was the early inspiration for the resource guide you are reading.

4000 Years of Women in Science: http://www.astr.ua.edu/4000WS/ Maintained by two women astronomers, this site includes brief information on women from many fields of science, not just astronomy. Their site ends with the start of the 20th century, but you can see the much shorter “Contributions of 20th Century Women to Physics” at: http://cwp.library.ucla.edu/

History of Women in Astronomy: http://astro.berkeley.edu/~gmarcy/women/history.html The text and images from a slide set on women astronomers available from the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Includes capsule biographies of women from Carolyn Herschel to Sidney Wolff.

She is an Astronomer: http://www.sheisanastronomer.org/ This relatively new site, a project of the 2009 International Year of Astronomy, has capsule biographies and useful links to discussions of issues that confront women in astronomy.

The Woman Astronomer: http://www.womanastronomer.com/ Debra Davis, a Colorado amateur astronomer, keeps this site and newsletter devoted to both amateurs and professionals.

Gould, Paula “Two Good Women, or Too Good to Be True?” (a 2002 essay from Science, considering how Caroline Herschel and Mary Somerville are treated by history, in contrast with men of their time): http://www.sciencemag.org/content/296/5574/1805.full

Women in Astronomy: A Resource Guide by Andrew Fraknoi: http://www.astrosociety.org/education/astronomy-resource-guides/women-in-astronomy-an-introductory-resource-guide/ (an expanded version of this guide, with many more listings for individual women).

D. Videos

Jocelyn Bell Burnell (Oxford): “A Celebration of Women in Astronomy” (a talk in 2012 in Edinburgh; we only hear the audio, there is no video, but it is a fascinating public talk with profiles of specific women, including Caroline Herschel and Vera Rubin, and discussions of trends): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_50PyimUE5s (a shorter version is a 2013 TED talk at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jp7amRdr30Y)

Emily Rice (City University of New York) gives a talk on contributions of women to astronomy (with many historical and contemporary examples and an analysis of modern trends): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5vMR7su4fi8

Beverly J. Smith (East Tennessee State U.) gives a powerpoint presentation on the history of women in astronomy and current statistics about their participation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yAa-gCSUwEE

2. Materials on a Few Specific Women Astronomers of the Past

Maria Mitchell

A. Books

Becker, Barbara Unraveling Starlight: William and Margaret Huggins and the Rise of the New Astronomy. 2011, Cambridge U. Press. Has much material on Margaret Huggins’ role in their partnership and her activities after William’s death.

Belserene, Emelia “Maria Mitchell: 19th Century Astronomer” in Astronomy Quarterly, vol. 5, no. 19, p. 133 (1986).

Berglund, Renee Maria Mitchell and the Sexing of Science. 2008, Beacon Press. Story of her life and of the importance of her work and fame for women’s issues.

Booker, Margaret Among the Stars: The Life of Maria Mitchell. 2007, Mill Hill Press. A long biography for adult readers.

Brock, Claire The Comet Sweeper: Caroline Herschel’s Astronomical Ambition. 2008, Totem Books. A popular-level biography.

Bruck, Mary Agnes Mary Clerke & the Rise of Astrophysics. 2002, Cambridge U. Press.

Burleigh, Robert Look Up!: Henrietta Leavitt, Pioneering Woman Astronomer. 2013, Simon & Schuster. A book for children ages 4 – 8.

Caroline Herschel

Chapman, Allan Mary Somerville and the World of Science. 2004, Canopus Books.

Gingerich, Owen “The Most Brilliant PhD Thesis Ever Written in Astronomy” in Phillip, A. & Koopman, R., eds. The Starry Universe: The Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin Centenary. 2001, L. Davis Press.

Gormley, Beatrice Maria Mitchell: The Soul of an Astronomer. 1995, Eerdmans Publishing. A book for youngsters.

Goss, Miller Making Waves: The Story of Ruby Payne-Scott: Australian Pioneer Radio Astronomer. 2013, Springer.

Haramundanis, Katherine, ed. Cecilia Gaposchkin: An Autobiography and Notes, 2nd ed. 1996, Cambridge U. Press.

Higgins, F. Sweeper of the Skies: Caroline Herschel. 1967, Follett. For young people.

Hill, Edward My Daughter Beatrice. 1986, American Physical Society. About Beatrice Tinsley.

Johnson, George Miss Leavitt’s Stars: The Untold Story of the Woman Who Discovered How to Measure the Universe. 2005, Atlas/Norton. Biography by a science journalist.

Lemonick, Michael The Georgian Star: How William and Caroline Herschel Revolutionized Our Understanding of the Cosmos. 2008, W. W. Norton. A popular-level history of their partnership by a science reporter.

Lightman, B. “Constructing Victorian Heavens: Agnes Clerke and the ‘New Astronomy’ ” in Gates, Barbara & Shteir, Ann, eds. Natural Eloquence: Women Reinscribe Science. 1997, U. of Wisconsin Press.

McPherson, Stephanie Rooftop Astronomer: A Story about Maria Mitchell. 1990, CarolRhoda Books. For younger children.

Neeley, Kathryn Mary Somerville: Science, Illumination, and the Female Mind. 2001, Cambridge University Press.

Philip, A.G. D., et al, eds. Anni Mirabiles: A Symposium Celebrating the 90th Birthday of Dorrit Hoffleit. 1999, L. Davis Press.

Richardson, Robert “Henrietta Leavitt” and “Lady Huggins” in The Star Lovers. 1967, Macmillan.

Wright, Helen Sweeper in the Sky: The Life of Maria Mitchell. 1950, Macmillan. (Recently updated and reprinted by College Avenue Press.)

B. Print Articles

Bruck, Mary “Agnes Mary Clerke: Chronicler of Astronomy” in Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, Mar. 1994, p. 59. Lengthy profile.

Eisberg, Joann “Making a Science of Observational Cosmology: The Cautious Optimism of Beatrice Tinsley” in Journal for the History of Astronomy, vol. 32, p. 264 (2001).

Faber, Sandra “Beatrice Tinsley” in Physics Today, vol. 34, p. 110 (Sept. 1981).

Hoffleit, Dorrit “Antonia Maury” in Sky & Telescope, Mar. 1952, p. 106.

Hoskin, Michael “Astronomy’s Matriarch” in Sky &Telescope, May 2005, p. 42-46. On Caroline Herschel.

Hughes, D. “Caroline Herschel: Comet Huntress” in Journal of the British Astronomical Association, Apr. 1999, vol. 109, p. 78.

Larson, R. & Stryker, L. “Beatrice Hill Tinsley” in Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 23, p. 162 (1982).

Levy, D. “Astronomy’s First Lady” in Sky & Telescope, Feb. 1999, p. 89. On Dorrit Hoffleit.

Matyas, C. “Maria Mitchell: First Woman Astronomer in America” in Science Digest, Aug. 1961, vol. 50, no. 8, p. 51.

Mitchell, H. “Henrietta Leavitt and the Cepheid Variables” in The Physics Teacher, Mar. 1976, vol. 14, p. 162.

Opalko, J. “Maria Mitchells’ Haunting Legacy” in Sky & Telescope, May 1992, p. 505.

Patterson, E. “Mary Somerville” in British Journal for the History of Science, vol. 4, p. 311 (1969). Long profile.

Cecilia Payne

Smith, E. “Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin” in Physics Today, June 1980, p. 64.

Spradley, J. “The Industrious Mrs. Fleming” in Astronomy, July 1990, p. 48.

Weitzenhoffer, K. “The Prolific Pen of Agnes Clerke” in Sky & Telescope, Sep. 1985, p. 211.

Weitzenhoffer, K. “The Triumph of Dorothea Klumpke” in Sky & Telescope, Aug. 1986, p. 109.

Weitzenhoffer, K. “The Education of Mary Somerville” in Sky & Telescope, Feb. 1987, p. 138.

Whitney, C. “Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin: An Astronomer’s Astrono­mer” in Sky & Telescope, Mar. 1980, p. 212.

C. Web Resources

Annie Cannon pages at Wellesley College: http://academics.wellesley.edu/Astronomy/Annie/ Part of a student project, but with good local historical information.

Becker, B. “Dispelling the Myth of the Able Assistant: Margaret and William Huggins at Work in the Tulse Hill Observatory” (1992): http://faculty.humanities.uci.edu/bjbecker/ExploringtheCosmos/week7b.html

Bruck, M. “Mary Somerville: Mathematician and Astronomer of Underused Talent”: http://adsbit.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?bibcode=1996JBAA..106..201B

DeVorkin, David: Transcript of a 1980 Interview with Nancy Roman for the Center for the History of Physics: https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories/4846

DeVorkin, David: Transcript of a 1979 Interview with Helen Sawyer Hogg for the Center for the History of Physics: https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories/4679

Fleming, Wilhelmina: Obituary (1911) by Annie Cannon from the Astrophysical Journal: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1911ApJ....34..314C (click on the PDF box at the end to see the article itself)

Gingerich, Owen: Transcript of a 1986 Interview with Margaret Mayall for the Center for the History of Physics: https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories/28323-1

Herschel, Caroline: March 2007 BBC radio program about Caroline Herschel: http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/womanshour/03/2007_11_thu.shtml

Mitchell, Maria: Memories of: Harriet Townsend in 1916: http://womenshistory.about.com/od/mariamitchell/fl/Maria-Mitchell.htm

Maria Mitchell reminiscences about her meetings with the Herschels (a magazine article from 1889): http://womenshistory.about.com/od/mariamitchell/a/Reminiscences-Of-The-Herschels.htm

Stone, Don “Dorothea Klumpke-Roberts: Pioneer Woman Astronomer”: http://www.aanc-astronomy.org/articles/dorothea.html

Sweeney, Brian & Owens, Jay “Beatrice Tinsley: Queen of the Cosmos (1999 short biographical article): http://www.nzedge.com/beatrice-tinsley/

Taibi, Richard “Rose O’Halloran”: http://www.usskyhistory.blogspot.com (click 2012 in the blog archives and scroll down to the July 18, 2012 entry in this blog; O’Halloran was an astronomer and educator in San Francisco in the late 19th and early 20th century and the first woman board member of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific).

Turner, Margaret “The Life and Work of Beatrice Tinsley”: http://freepages.misc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~mturner/women/bmt.htm

Vassar Encyclopedia Entry on Antonia Maury: http://vcencyclopedia.vassar.edu/alumni/antonia-maury.html

Women in Science site (San Diego Supercomputer Center), contains brief biographies of Helen Sawyer Hogg and Annie Cannon: http://www.sdsc.edu/ScienceWomen/contents.html

Zielinksi, S. “Hypathia, Ancient Alexandria’s Great Female Scholar” (from Smithsonian Magazine): http://www.smithsonianmag.com/womens-history/hypatia-ancient-alexandrias-great-female-scholar-10942888/

D. Videos

Video about Annie Cannon’s life and work; described at: http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/~alexg/ajc.html

Video of talk by George Johnson on his “Search for Miss Leavitt”: http://perimeterinstitute.ca/videos/search-miss-leavitt

Video about Henrietta Leavitt (made by Pangratios Papacosta of Columbia College Chicago): http://vimeo.com/89336217

E. Plays

Henrietta Leavitt

Gunderson, Lauren: Silent Sky (about Henrietta Leavitt): https://sites.google.com/site/henriettasrhapsody/ and http://silentskyplay.tumblr.com/ plus http://news.discovery.com/space/astronomy/star-fiend-henrietta-leavitt-comes-to-life-on-stage-110415.htm For more about the dramatist: http://laurengunderson.com/

Hoar, Stuart (a New Zealand playwright): Bright Star (a play about the work and life of Beatrice Tinsley): http://www.brightstar-theplay.com/web_documents/media_release__2_nov__brightstar-theplay__nz_hobbits.pdf and http://www.playmarket.org.nz/playwrights/stuart-hoar

Nicholas, Siobhán: Stella (a play about Caroline Herschel): http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/blog/2012/may/14/play-astronomer-caroline-herschel and http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_nzf1wZNQhY

3. Issues Facing Women in Astronomy Today

A. Books and Conference Proceedings

Kinney, Anne, et al, eds. Meeting the Challenges of an Increasingly Diverse Workforce: Women in Astronomy and Space Science. 2009, NASA. The entire book is available free on the web as a PDF file: http://wia2009.gsfc.nasa.gov/WIA2009_proceedings.pdf

Urry, C. Megan, et al, eds. Women in Astronomy: Proceedings of a 1992 Workshop. 1993, Space Telescope Science Institute.

B. Print Articles

Bell Burnell, Jocelyn “So Few Pulsars, So Few Females” in Science, 23 April 2004, vol. 304. no. 5670, p. 489.

Geller, Margaret “The Black Ribbon” in Science, 28 August 1998, vol. 281 no. 5381 p. 1278.

See also the Finkbeiner entry in the next section

C. Web Resources

American Astronomical Society Committee on the Status of Women: http://www.aas.org/cswa/ A rich site with back issues of the valuable “STATUS” newsletter, a database of living women astronomers, legal resources, conference proceedings, and discussion of issues related to the role of professional women in the astronomy.

Women at NASA: http://women.nasa.gov/ (Profiles of women who work for the US Space Agency, including a number of astronomers and astrobiologists. The profiles include personal statements that can be quite moving and inspiring.)

Women at Work: A Meeting on the Status of Women in Astronomy: http://www.stsci.edu/institute/conference/wia/ (Proceedings of a pioneering 1992 meeting with useful local and national perspectives. A second conference was held in 2003: http://www.aas.org/cswa/WIA2003.html )

Women in Astronomy and Space Science (A Conference on Diversity Issues Held in 2009). Proceedings can be found at: http://wia2009.gsfc.nasa.gov/WIA2009_proceedings.pdf

Women in Planetary Science: http://womeninplanetaryscience.wordpress.com/profiles/ (Profiles of more than 50 women active in studying the solar system, and a discussion of issues they face)

She is an Astronomer: http://www.sheisanastronomer.org/ (A European site kept by Helen Walker, with profiles of women astronomers outside the U.S., discussions of issues, conference proceedings, varied resources, and more.)

International Astronomical Union Women in Astronomy Working Group (with international statistics and news of world-wide meetings): http://iauwomeninastronomy.org/

Women in Astronomy Blog (forthright discussion of issues, opportunities, resources, and networking): http://womeninastronomy.blogspot.com/

American Institute of Physics Aug. 2013 Report on Statistics of Women Faculty Members in Physics and Astronomy: http://www.aip.org/statistics/reports/women-among-physics-astronomy-faculty

Finkbeiner, Ann “Good Morning, Gentlemen and Meg: Astronomy, A Woman’s Choice” (an article compiling personal history and suggestions from interviews of 15 noted women astronomers): http://www.aas.org/cswa/status/2001/JANUARY2001/Finkbeiner.html

10 Tips for Undergraduate Women Science Students (from Astronomer Sara Seager): http://www.usnews.com/education/blogs/professors-guide/2010/08/11/10-tips-for-women-students-in-science-fields

Seager, Sara “So Many Exoplanets, So Few Women Astronomers” (an article in the Huffington Post Jan. 2013 about the hardship that constant travel imposes on women scientists with small children): http://www.huffingtonpost.com/sara-seager/women-in-science_b_2471980.html

Jane Luu

The Baltimore Charter (spelling out what can be done to help improve the status and working conditions of women in astronomy): http://www.aas.org/cswa/bc.html

The Pasadena Recommendations for Equity (2003-2005 specific proposals for moving forward toward gender equity): http://www.aas.org/cswa/pasadenarecs.html

Why So Few? Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (2010 research report from the Association of University Women discusses key research findings on factors that block women’s participation and progress in science): http://www.aauw.org/resource/why-so-few-women-in-science-technology-engineering-and-mathematics/

Geller, Margaret “The Black Ribbon” (2004, a poignant essay from Science magazine about how discrimination and poverty hold back full participation in science in the U.S.): http://www.sciencemag.org/content/281/5381/1278.full

Encouraging Girls in STEM: A Page of Useful Resources: http://www.ngcproject.org/engaging-girls-stem (STEM is science, technology, engineering, and math)

The Global Survey of Physicists: A Collaborative Effort Illuminates the Situation of Women in Physics (from the American Institute of Physics): http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/proceeding/aipcp/10.1063/1.4794221 (click in the grey box near the authors’ names to download a PDF copy)

D. Videos

Women in Astronomy 2009 (a 3-minute video, made in conjunction with the 2009 meeting about women in astronomy. Concise framing of issues through interviews with leaders such as Vera Rubin, Meg Urry, and Dara Norman): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1QyMB0qagZs

Jocelyn Bell Burnell TED talk on “Reflections on Women in Science: Diversity and Discomfort” (a 15-minute talk with some of her personal history and statistics about women in astronomy): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jp7amRdr30Y

Meg Urry colloquium on “Women in Science: Why So Few?” (an hour-long illustrated talk on statistics and issues, not specifically about astronomy, but with many eye-opening ideas): http://vimeo.com/35730552

4. Materials on a Few Specific Women Astronomers Today

A. Books

Bortz, Fred: Beyond Jupiter: The Story of Planetary Astronomer Heidi Hammel (2005, Franklin Watts/Scholastic & Joseph Henry Press). A colorful profile of Hammel as a person and scientist, written for teenagers (but enjoyable reading for everyone.)

Conklin, Nan Dieter Two Paths to Heaven’s Gate. 2006, NRAO Archives, 520 Edgemont Rd., Charlottesville, VA 22903. A memoir by a pioneering radio astronomer.

Goldsmith, Donald The Astronomers. 1991, St. Martin’s Press. The chapter entitled “Mapping the Universe” profiles Margaret Geller’s life and work; there is also material on the work of Vera Rubin and Anneila Sargent in the book.

Hopping, Lorraine Space Rocks: The Story of Planetary Geologist Adriana Ocampo. (2006, Joseph Henry Press.) Profile written for teenagers, in the same series as the Bortz book.

Hu, Esther “Looking Back in Time: Searching for the Most Distant Galaxies” in Stern, S. Alan, ed. Our Universe: The Thrill of Extragalactic Exploration as Told by Leading Experts. 2001, Cambridge U. Press; pp. 23-36. Combines a discussion of her work and her development as a scientist. (The same volume also has a similar chapter by Megan Donahue, pp. 107-126.)

Isbell, Douglas & Strom, Stephen “A Talk with Vera Rubin” in Observatories of the Southwest. 2009, U. of Arizona Press.

Jackson, Ellen Looking for Life in the Universe: The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence. 2005, Houghton Mifflin. A profile of Jill and her work for young people in grades 4-8.

Lightman, Alan & Brawer, Roberta “Interview with Sandra Faber” in Ori­gins. 1990, Harvard U. Press. (Also has interviews with Margaret Geller and Vera Rubin.)

Rubin, Vera Bright Galaxies, Dark Matters. 1997, American Institute of Physics Press. A collection of her articles, including several personal reminiscences.

Shoemaker, Carolyn “Ups and Downs in Planetary Astronomy” in Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Science, vol. 27, p. 1 (1999). Reminiscences about her career.

Jill Tarter

Stofan, Ellen “Venus: The Way We Might Have Been” in Stern, S.A., ed. Our Worlds: The Magnetism and Thrill of Planetary Exploration. 1999, Cambridge U. Press; pp. 31-45. Combines a discussion of the exploration of Venus with autobiographical information on her development as a scientist.

Swift, David “Interview with Jill Tarter” in SETI Pioneers. 1990, U. of Arizona Press.

Trimble, Virginia Visit to a Small Universe. 1992, American Institute of Physics Press. A collection of her articles, including several that bear on her own life and work.

B. Print Articles

Bartusiak, M. “The Woman Who Spins the Stars” in Discover, Oct. 1990, p. 88. About Vera Rubin and her work.

Bartusiak, M. “The Remarkable Odyssey of Jane Luu” in Astronomy, Feb. 1996, p. 46.

Chaikin, A. “Surveyor of the Universe” in Air & Space, Aug./Sept. 1991; vol. 6, p. 84. About the work of Margaret Geller.

Davies, John Beyond Pluto: Exploring the Outer Limits of the Solar System. Chapter 4 features Jane Luu’s life and work.

Ferron, K. “Brief Interview with Jill Tarter” in Astronomy, Dec. 2009, p. 10.

Flamsteed, S. “Star Spots: The Work of Sallie Baliunas” in Discover, Dec. 1991, p. 29.

Flanagan, R. “Observer of the Gas Giants” in Astronomy, July 1997, p. 50. About Heidi Hammel.

Reed G. “The Discovery of Pulsars: Was Credit Given Where it was Due?” in Astronomy, Dec. 1983, p. 24. About Jocelyn Bell Burnell.

Irion, R. “Vera Rubin Profile: The Bright Face Behind the Dark Sides of Galaxies” in Science, vol. 295, no. 5557, p. 960 (Feb. 8, 2002).

Levy, D. “Star Trails: Carolyn Shoemaker” in Sky & Telescope, June 1991, p. 658.

Lubick, N. “An Ear to the Stars” in Scientific American, Nov. 2002, p. 42. A brief profile of Jill Tarter and her SETI work.

Naeye, R. “Unlocking New Worlds” in Astronomy, Nov. 2002, p. 48. A profile of Debra Fischer and discussion of her work.

Schomaker, W. “NASA’s Visionary” in Astronomy, Jan. 2005, p. 48. Interview and profile of Anne Kinney.

Stephens, S. “Hubble Warrior” in Astronomy, March 2000, p. 52. Profile of Wendy Freedman’s work trying to find the Hubble constant and other cosmological parameters.

Wade, N. “Discovery of Pulsars: A Graduate Student’s Story” in Science, Aug. 1, 1975, p. 358. Discussed Jocelyn Bell’s role in the discovery of pulsars.

Waldrop, M. “New Director Named for Kitt Peak” in Science, vol. 224, p. 265 (Apr. 20, 1984). A story about Sidney Wolff.

Wiley, J. “Margaret Geller: Star Mapper” in Astronomy, Nov. 2000; vol. 28. p. 104.

C. Selected Web Resources

Alexander, Claudia: Brief Profile at JPL site on how she became U.S. Project Manager for the Rosetta mission: http://rosetta.jpl.nasa.gov/news/claudia-alexander-project-manager-and-project-scientist

Bagenal, Fran: 2007 Statement to the House Science Committee on NASA Funding: http://www.spaceref.com/news/viewsr.html?pid=19812

Bell Burnell, Jocelyn: Text of a 1977 After-dinner Speech about her Discovery of Pulsars: http://www.bigear.org/vol1no1/burnell.htm

Margaret Burbidge

Billings, Lee: May 2009 article about Debra Fischer and her work from Seed Magazine: http://seedmagazine.com/content/article/the_long_shot/

Burbidge, Margaret “Watcher of the Skies” (an autobiographical article from Annual Reviews 1994; 37-page PDF): http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/

Carey, Bjorn “Carolyn Porco: Keeping an Eye on Saturn” (2005 profile and interview): http://www.space.com/788-carolyn-porco-keeping-eye-saturn.html

Chapman, Mary: Carolyn Shoemaker Profile (USGS): http://astrogeology.usgs.gov/people/carolyn-shoemaker

DeVorkin, David “Interview with Margaret Burbidge” 1978, for the Center for the History of Physics: https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories/25487

DeVorkin, David “Interview with Nan Dieter-Conklin” 1977, for the Center for the History of Physics: https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories/4573

DeVorkin, David “Interview with Andrea Dupress (for the Center for the History of Physics): https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories/33706

DeVorkin, David “Interview with Dorrit Hoffleit” 1979, for the Center for the History of Physics: https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories/4677

DeVorkin, David “Interview with Charlotte Moore (Sitterly)” 1978, for the Center for the History of Physics: https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories/4784

DeVorkin, David “Interview with Nancy Roman” 1980, for the Center for the History of Physics: https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories/4846

Elmegreen, Debra (brief bio): http://heritage.stsci.edu/1999/41/bio/bio_elmegreen.html

Eshleman, Adams “Mercedes Richards: Stellar Detective” (Penn State University news story 2009): http://news.psu.edu/story/141653/2009/08/05/research/stellar-detective-profile-professor-mercedes-richards

Sandra Faber 1995 Biographical Sketch: http://cwp.library.ucla.edu/articles/faber.htm

Freedman, Wendy: Interviews at the National Academy of Sciences in 2004, about her development as a scientist and her work): http://www.nasonline.org/news-and-multimedia/podcasts/interviews/wendy-l-freedman.html

Geller, Margaret “1995 Phi Beta Kappa Speech at Harvard (with some personal reminiscences): http://gos.sbc.edu/g/geller.html

Ghez, Andrea: Interview for PBS NOVA series, first about her work, but then about her development as a scientist): http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/space/andrea-ghez.html

Hammel, Heidi: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about a Career in Astronomy and more: http://www.fredbortz.com/HammelBio/AstroFAQ.htm

Kwok, Roberta “The Stars Her Destination” (a short 2008 profile of Natalie Batalha from the Berkeley Alumni Magazine): http://alumni.berkeley.edu/news/california-magazine/november-december-2008-stars-berkeley/stars-her-destination

Lawler, Andrew “Margaret Geller: Battling Discrimination or Bureaucracy?” in Science, 12 November 1999; vol. 286. no. 5443, p. 1277.

Vera Rubin

Lightman, Alan “Interview with Sandra Faber” 1988, for the Center for the History of Physics: https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories/33932

Lightman, Alan “Interview with Vera Rubin” 1989, for the Center for the History of Physics: https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories/33963

Lopes, Rosaly (a brief biography and interview in Volcano World): http://volcanoworld.wordpress.com/2011/12/19/rosaly-lopes/

Luu, Jane: Interview from 2003 (with a lot of biographical information): http://www.imagiverse.org/interviews/janeluu/jane_luu_21_03_03.htm

McCray, Patrick “Interview with Sidney Wolff” (Wolff was the first woman in history to be the head of a national observatory; Part of the Oral History Interviews at the American Institute of Physics): https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories/23363-1

Mestel, Rosie “Carolyn Shoemaker and Her Comet” (1994 profile from New Scientist magazine): http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/esp_shoemaker_a.htm

My Hero Project: France Cordova (includes biographical information and interview): http://www.myhero.com/go/hero.asp?hero=dr_france_cordova

My Hero Project: Andrea Ghez (includes information about her life and her work, with quotes): http://www.myhero.com/go/hero.asp?hero=A_M_Ghez_06

My Hero Project: Lucy McFadden (short discussion of her work and how she got into astronomy): http://www.myhero.com/go/hero.asp?hero=Lucy_Mcfadden_06

Overbye, Dennis “An Odyssey from the Bronx to Saturn’s Rings” (a 2009 New York Times profile of Carolyn Porco): http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/22/science/space/22prof.html

Rubin, Vera “An Interesting Voyage” (an autobiographical article from Annual Reviews 2011; 30-page PDF): http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev-astro-081710-102545

Rubin, Vera “Margaret Burbidge: AAAS President-Elect” a brief biography from Science, vol. 211, p. 915 (Feb. 27, 1981). On the web at: http://www.aas.org/cswa/status/2001/JANUARY2001/Rubin.html

Shoemaker, Carolyn: 1998 Essay from Science Magazine on Space Exploration (with thoughts about her own life and work): http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/282/5394/1637

Snedegar, Jean and Higgins, Suzanne “Kimberly Weaver, Astrophysicist and Inspiring West Virginian”: http://wvpublic.org/post/kim-weaver-astrophysicist-and-pioneer-x-ray-astronomy

Sommerville, Iain “From Burtisland to the Outer Limits: The Journey of Anneila Cassells [Sargent]” (mostly about her early life): http://www.burntisland.net/sargent.htm

Soter, Stephen & Tyson, Neil: Excerpt from the book Cosmic Horizons about Vera Rubin and her work: http://www.amnh.org/explore/resource-collections/cosmic-horizons/profile-vera-rubin-and-dark-matter

Werner, Debra “Profile of Ellen Stofan, NASA Chief Scientist” (brief): http://spacenews.com/37599profile-ellen-stofan-nasa-chief-scientist/

Wolff, Sidney “Cautions for Astronomy’s Golden Age” (partly autobiographical reflections, 1987): http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/9063/title/Cautions-for-Astronomy-s-Golden-Age/

D. Selected Videos

Sandra Faber

Claudia Alexander: “Rosetta: Wild Bounce at comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko” (Dec. 2014 talk on the European mission to match course with and land on a comet; 1 hr 4 min): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kW4t-8v13aQ

Natalie Batalha: “Finding the Next Earth” (a 2012 talk in the Silicon Valley Astronomy Lecture Series; 1 hr 29 min): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZbijeR_AALo

Jocelyn Bell Burnell: Royal Institution (Public) Discourse in 1997, with nontechnical information about stellar evolution and some reminiscences about her discovery of pulsars (“Tick Tick Tick Pulsating Star”): http://www.vega.org.uk/video/programme/69

France Cordova: Last Lecture as President of Purdue University (includes the history of her development as a scientist): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6ng2Qh-J0jE

Laura Danly: “History of Gravity” at the World Science Festival (7 min): http://worldsciencefestival.com/videos/the_history_of_gravity
Also see an interview with her at RoadtripNation: http://roadtripnation.com/leader/laura-danly

Sandra Faber: Interview on the occasion of her winning the 2009 Bower Prize (includes images and reminiscences from many parts of her career; 8 minutes): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D5Rc85Ggkpk (Another short video about her work can be seen at: http://news.ucsc.edu/2011/07/faber-emmy.html or https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Goe8vRNxiIM)

Debra Fischer: 2012 interview on “Yale Live” (22 min): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UahXYEPHoHc (also see her Yale lecture Oct. 2013: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fomk3IakRQ0)

Margaret Geller

Margaret Geller: 2013 interview when she won the APS Lillienfeld Prize (6 min): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8c3lM8v68Hw

Andrea Ghez: 2009 TED talk on the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way (16 min): http://www.ted.com/talks/

Heidi Hammel: 3 minutes on how she got into astronomy, how a mentor helped her, and what she likes to do (great to show young people): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7eSslCoJEjE

Rosaly Lopes: Discusses her work and work history on “Through the Eyes of Scientists” (3 min, 2011): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ntCPur1SQ4Y (See also her talk at Planetfest 2012 at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nAtsRehiE7E)

Chung-Pei Ma: Lecture on “Monster Black Holes: What Lurks in the Centers of Galaxies” in the Silicon Valley Astronomy Lecture Series (2014): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LN9oYjNKBm8

Carolyn Porco: TED Talk in 2007 on “This is Saturn” (17 min): http://www.ted.com/talks/carolyn_porco_flies_us_to_saturn.html (Also see the 2014 interview with Andrew Chaikin about her career and her “life at Saturn”: http://www.universetoday.com/111405/video-carolyn-porco-discusses-her-life-at-saturn/)

Sara Seager: Public talk on “Origins and Aliens: The Search for Other Earths” at McMaster University in March 2009 (54 min): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z1-yz0JTmk4 (Also see her 2013 TEDX talk at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NnM4SaGc8R0)

Ellen Stofan: “Lecture on Exploring Titan by Boat” (2012, at the Denver Museum of Natural History, 1 hr, 18 min): http://vimeo.com/44046816

Jill Tarter has given many public talks that are on the web. Here are two shorter ones.
     At Zeitgeist 2012: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4EABW8WVTV0
     In 2009, receiving the TED Prize: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EszGIvRdgTE

Jill Tarter’s talk in the Silicon Valley Astronomy Lecture Series in 2008 is a good summary of her SETI work: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aqsI1HZCgUM

Maria Zuber discussing the Grail spacecraft and the MoonKAM educational project at Zeitgeist 2012 (11 min video): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q52AWjZn1Ko

Multiverse skin is based on Greytness by Adammer